Unit 15

Sharing of benefits


Global justice as basis for sharing the benefits of science and scientific research.

International instruments on benefit sharing.

a. International Declaration of Human Genetic Data (2003)
b. Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization (2002)
c. Doha Declaration on the TRIPs Agreement and Public Health (2001)
d. Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Committee Statement on Benefit Sharing (2000)
e. Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (1997)

Models of benefit-sharing agreements.

a. Fair and equitable options for research subjects.
b. Biopiracy and fair sharing of benefits of genetic resources.
c. Patents and intellectual property.
d. Valid options for promoting fair and equitable access to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities or to products stemming from them.

Integration of capacity-building components to externally funded research and other initiatives.

Prohibition of using improper inducements to participate in research.


The constant gardener / (F. Meirelles, 2005)

In a remote area of Northern Kenya, activist Tessa Quayle is found brutally murdered. Tessa’s companion, Dr. Justin Quayle, decides to investigate her death against the strong wish of his superiors to let the matter quietly disappear. He discovers a powerful mystery involving the members of the British High Commission and the business practices of the multi-billion dollar pharmaceutical industry.

Ethical Issues
Medical illegal practices on poor natives of an African village: Drugs big business and corporate corruption.

And the band played on / (R. Spottiswoode, 1993)

In 1976, the american epidemiologist Don Francis arrives to a town near the Ebola river in Congo and discovers that many of the villagers and the physician that worked with them died due to a mysterious desease, which would later be identified as Ebola virus. This was his first experience with a mortal epidemic.
In 1981, Francis realizes that there is an increasing number of inexplicable deaths amongst the homosexual male population of Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. He will soon begin his research on the probable causes for the State’s Control and Prevention of Illnesses Centre.

Ethical issues
Cientific investigation, Knowledge production and its context, Economical factors that condition research.